The statement of objects and reasons of the bill said one of India's most serious social and economic problems is its huge population and rapid growth. "We have one-fifth of the world's population and the proportion of world's arable land is only five per cent. Rapid population growth will lead to problems and extreme poverty," it said.
The statement said India will soon become the country with the largest population in the world and there is need of a ensure food security.
It said policies framed by various governments have not been able to control population and there is no law on population control.
The bill said there is need for a law on population so that every Indian reaps more benefit from economic growth and to deal with challenges posed by fast population growth.
The statement of objects and reasons of the bill introduced by Nishikant Dubey said the benefits of collective efforts of nation building have been squandered by rise in population "which is evident from economic data".
It said that India has had shown a state-sponsored family planning programme since 1951 and the total fertility rate (TFR) has fallen from around 6 at the time of independence, to around 2.3.
"The result of the programme has, however, been skewed. While the States in the southern pan of India and most States in western India have been receptive to the idea of family planning, many States in the northern parts of the country, which also account for the majority of our population, have not shown encouraging results. The larger States like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar still continue to have a high fertility rate nearing 3. So much so. that the gains of achievement of other States in population control have largely been neutralized by the rise in population in these States," it said.
The statement of objects and reasons said that benefits of collective efforts of nation building have been squandered by rise in population which is evident from economic data.
It said India's per capita Gross Domestic Product in 1998 was USD 413 and it has grown to about USD 2016 in the year 2018.
"However, during this period our population is estimated to have grown from I billion to 1.4 billion. If we had a stable population during this period, the per capita GDP would have been higher by another forty percent. Certainly, a rising population limits the ability of the State to provide better quality of life to its citizens, since a large chunk of national income is spent on maintaining the existing facilities.
"It is, therefore, essential that a more focussed approach is adopted, even if it requires a change of strategy. Towards this end, the Bill seeks to insert a new directive principle in Part IV of the Constitution enjoining upon the State to take all steps to control population growth by promoting small family norms and achieve a stable population. The Bill also makes it a fundamental duty for citizens to adopt small family norms and work towards a stable population of the country," the statement said.
A recent UN report said that India is projected to surpass China as the world's most populous country next year.
But the World Population Prospects 2022 also highlighted that India's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) had come down from 5.9 children per woman in 1950 to 2.2 children per woman in 2020, just shy of 2.1 replacement level fertility.
The winter session of the Parliament began on December 7 and has 17 working days. (ANI)